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What to Know Before Changing iTunes and App Store Country

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We might live in an interconnected world, but international laws and policies can’t always keep up with our jet-setting ways. You’ll discover this first-hand if you ever try to change your iTunes or App Store account from one country to another.

Although it is possible to switch your iTunes or App Store country—which we’ll show you how to do below—doing so comes with a fair amount of drawbacks, like losing access to all your previous purchases.

Here’s everything you need to know about this process.

The Problem With Changing Your iTunes or App Store Country

App Store purchases not on this iPhone for download

Each country accesses a different version of iTunes or the App Store. Sometimes these stores have different apps, music, movies, and other media available in them. But even if two stores have exactly the same content, you can only access your purchased media from the store you bought it from.

That means you lose access to all your existing iTunes and App Store purchases when you change your Apple ID to a different country.

Anything already on your device is still available to use and apps you’ve already downloaded still get the latest updates. But you’ll need to change the App Store and iTunes settings back to your original country again if you want to access purchases that you hadn’t already downloaded.

The biggest issue with this is that you need a valid payment method for whichever country you want to change iTunes and the App Store to. You can’t use an Australian credit card in the US App Store, for example.

So if you moved from Australia to the US, you’d need to get an American credit card to change to the US App Store. Then, if you ever wanted to access your Australian purchases again, you’d need to use your old Australian card to change back. This might be impossible to do if you moved to America permanently and your Australian payment details have expired.

One way to get around this problem is to create a second Apple ID account, rather than changing the settings for your existing one.

The Benefits of Creating a Second Apple ID Account

Create Your Apple ID website with Country selected

Instead of changing the country or region for your existing iTunes and App Store account, sometimes it’s beneficial to create a second Apple ID to use instead. With two separate accounts—one for Australia and one for the US, for example—you can switch between them at any time without needing to update your payment information.

All you would need to do is sign out of iTunes and the App Store on your device, then sign in again using the second account. After doing so, you get instant access to all the iTunes and App Store content from that country, including your previous purchases.

It’s possible to create a new Apple ID account without attaching any payment information to it, allowing you to download free media from iTunes or the App Store in any country. If you want to buy something from another country, you can either add a payment method from that country or purchase a foreign iTunes gift card to use with that account.

The problem with this method is that it splits your purchases across two separate accounts. You need to associate each of them with a separate email address. And if you lose access to one of the accounts, you also lose all the purchases you made using it.

How to Keep iTunes and App Store Purchases From a Different Country

Downloaded purchased movies from iTunes

If you’ve already downloaded them to your device, you can still use any apps, music, movies, TV shows, books, and other iTunes or App Store purchases regardless of which country or account you purchased them from.

That means you should download all the purchases you want to keep using before changing your iTunes and App Store country, or before creating a separate Apple ID account.

If possible, create another copy of these purchases by making an iPhone backup on a computer. When creating the backup, be sure to select the option to Back up all the data from your device to your computer.

If you lose access to your original Apple ID account or if you’re unable to change the iTunes and App Store back to your original country, you can restore this backup to retrieve your original purchases.

How to Change the iTunes and App Store Country Settings

If you are moving to a different country permanently—meaning you only expect to change the country for iTunes and the App Store once—then you should change the settings for your account.

Otherwise, you should create a second account to make it easier to switch between iTunes and App Store countries multiple times. This second method is particularly useful if you don’t have a payment method for the new country you want to use.

We explain each option below.

Method 1: Change the Country Settings for iTunes and the App Store

There are a few steps you need to take before you can change your iTunes and App Store settings to a different country:

  • Cancel any existing subscriptions on your account, such as Apple Music or Apple TV+.
  • Leave your Family Sharing group, unless you’re the Family Organizer.
  • Spend any remaining credit in your Apple ID account.
  • Download any apps, music, movies, TV shows, books, or other media you might want to access in the future.

You also need to make sure you have a valid payment method and billing address for your new country. You’ll need to add this payment method to your Apple ID account when you change countries.

While you can change the iTunes or App Store country from any device, you only need to do it once. After you change the settings on one device, it affects the same account across all your other Apple devices as well.

On an iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch:

  1. Open the Settings app and go to [Your Name] > iTunes & App Store.
  2. Tap your Apple ID username and choose to View Apple ID from the popup.
  3. Tap Country/Region and choose to Change Country or Region, then select the new country you want to change to.
  4. After agreeing to the Terms and Conditions, enter the payment information and billing address for your new country and tap Done.

On a Mac:

  1. Open Apple Music and go to Account > View My Account from the menu bar.
  2. Under the Apple ID Summary section, click the option to Change Country or Region.
  3. Select the new country you want to change to.
  4. After agreeing to the Terms and Conditions, enter the payment information and billing address for your new country and tap Done.

Change Country or Region button in Apple Music app on Mac

Method 2: Create a Second Apple ID Account for Another Country

Creating a second Apple ID account is the best way to switch iTunes and the App Store to a different country temporarily. You don’t need a foreign payment method and it’s easy to switch back and forth between your old account and the new one within the App Store itself.

The easiest way to create a new Apple ID account is directly on your device. When you do so, make sure you select the right country for your new account. You’ll need to confirm this by adding a billing address in that country and verifying your account with an email address (and possibly a phone number as well).

You can use any phone number, even if it’s from a different country. But you need to use a new email address that isn’t linked to an existing Apple ID account.

On an iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch:

  1. Go to Settings > [Your Name] > Sign Out.
  2. Choose which iCloud data to save to your device and tap Sign Out.
  3. Open the App Store and tap the Account icon in the top-right corner, then choose to Create New Apple ID.
  4. Select your new country beneath the email address and password fields.
  5. Enter an email address and password to use with your new account. You can’t use an email address associated with another Apple ID account.
  6. Tap Next and fill in every requested Apple ID field. If you don’t have a payment method for this country, choose None. Even without a payment method, you need to find a billing address you can use in this country.
  7. Tap Done when you’re finished to create your new account.

Top Up Your Account With an iTunes Gift Card

After you create a new Apple ID account or change the settings on your existing account, you should be able to access content from iTunes or the App Store in the new country of your choice.

To make purchases, you need to ensure your payment information and billing address matches your new country. Alternatively, buy an international gift card and use it to add credit to your account. Learn all there is to know about iTunes Gift Cards before buying one to make sure you get what you need.

Read the full article: What to Know Before Changing iTunes and App Store Country



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Keyboard Shortcuts for Calendar, Reminders, and Notes on Mac

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If you’re a Mac user looking for a simple and effective day planner, consider this trio of native macOS apps: Calendar, Reminders, and Notes.

Once you set up these apps to your liking, you have a fuss-free system to manage your schedule, tasks, and notes. Plus, if you learn how to control them with keyboard shortcuts, so much the better. And what’s more, you can discover various useful keyboard shortcuts for these macOS productivity apps in the cheat sheet below.

The cheat sheet contains shortcuts for navigation and search, view management, formatting, and more in Calendar, Reminders, and Notes.

FREE DOWNLOAD: This cheat sheet is available as a downloadable PDF from our distribution partner, TradePub. You will have to complete a short form to access it for the first time only. Download Keyboard Shortcuts for Calendar, Reminders, and Notes on Mac.

Keyboard Shortcuts for Calendar, Reminders, and Notes on Mac

Calendar
Cmd + N Add new event
Option + Cmd + N Add new calendar
Shift + Cmd + N Add new calendar group
Option + Cmd + S Add new calendar subscription
Cmd + F Highlight search box to search for events
Cmd + 1 Switch to Day view
Cmd + 2 Switch to Week view
Cmd + 3 Switch to Month view
Cmd + 4 Switch to Year view
Cmd + Right Arrow Go to next day, week, month, or year
Cmd + Left Arrow Go to previous day, week, month, or year
Cmd + T Switch to today’s date
Shift + Cmd + T Open popup for switching to specific date
Cmd + + (Plus) Increase text size
Cmd + – (Minus) Decrease text size
Cmd + R Refresh all calendars
Cmd + E Edit selected event
Esc (when event is open) Close event editor without saving changes
Return (when event is open) Commit changes to event and close event editor
Cmd + I Show Info popup for selected event(s)
¹Option + Cmd + I Show Inspector popup for selected event
Arrow Keys Select event (if available) in adjacent row/column in relevant direction
Control + Option + Up Arrow Day/Week View: Move selected event 15 minutes earlier
Month View: Move selected event one week earlier
Control + Option + Down Arrow Day/Week View: Move selected event 15 minutes later
Month View: Move selected event one week later
Control + Option + Right Arrow Day/Week/Month View: Move selected event one day later
Control + Option + Left Arrow Day/Week/Month View: Move selected event one day earlier
Shift + Cmd + A Toggle Availability panel
Reminders
Cmd + N Create new reminder
Shift + Cmd + N Create new list
²Cmd + ] Indent reminder to create subtask
²Cmd + [ Outdent reminder
Cmd + E Show all subtasks
Shift + Cmd + E Hide all subtasks
³Cmd + I Show Info popup for selected reminder
Cmd + F Highlight search box to search for reminders
²Shift + Cmd + F Set/clear flag for selected reminder(s)
Control + Cmd + S Toggle sidebar
Notes
Cmd + N Create new note
Shift + Cmd + N Create new folder
Shift + Cmd + A Open dialog for attaching file
Cmd + K Create link
Cmd + F Highlight search box to search current note
Cmd + G Highlight next search result in current note
Shift + Cmd + G Highlight previous search result in current note
Option + Cmd + F Highlight search box to search all notes
Shift + Cmd + T Apply Title format
Shift + Cmd + H Apply Heading format
Shift + Cmd + J Apply Subheading format
Shift + Cmd + B Apply Body format
Shift + Cmd + M Apply Monospaced format
Shift + Cmd + L Apply Checklist format
Shift + Cmd + U Mark selected checklist items as checked/unchecked
Control + Cmd + Up Arrow Move current list/checklist item up in list
Control + Cmd + Down Arrow Move current list/checklist item down in list
Cmd + B Emphasize selected text
Cmd + I Italicize selected text
Cmd + U Underline selected text
Cmd + + (Plus) Increase size of selected text
Cmd + – (Minus) Decrease size of selected text
Cmd + Shift + [ Align selected text flush left
Cmd + Shift + Center selected text
Cmd + Shift + ] Align selected text flush right
Cmd + [ Decrease indent level of selected content or line where cursor is placed
Cmd + ] Increase indent level of selected content or line where cursor is placed
Control + Return Add line break (soft return) to list/checklist item
Option + Tab Insert tab character in list item
Option + Cmd + C Copy style of selection
Option + Cmd + V Paste copied style to selection
Cmd + T Show Fonts window
Shift + Cmd + C Show Colors window
Option + Cmd + T Create table
⁴Return Move cursor to row below
Tab Move focus to next cell on right
Shift + Tab Move focus to next cell on left
Shift + Left/Right Arrow Select cells one by one in relevant direction current row
Shift + Up/Down Arrow Select cells one by one in relevant direction in current column
Option + Return Add new paragraph in current cell
Option + Tab Add tab character in current cell
Option + Cmd + Up Arrow Add new row above current row
Option + Cmd + Down Arrow Add new row below current row
Option + Cmd + Right Arrow Add new column to right of current column
Option + Cmd + Left Arrow Add new column to left of current column
Cmd + 0 Show main Notes window
Cmd + 1 Switch to List view for notes
Cmd + 2 Switch to Gallery view for notes
Cmd + 3 Switch to Attachments Browser
Return (when note is selected in List view or Gallery view) Open or switch focus to selected note to begin typing
Cmd + Return Open or switch focus from current note content to previous notes view i.e. List view or Gallery view
Option+ Cmd + S Toggle Folders sidebar
Shift + Cmd + . (Period) Zoom in on note content
Shift + Cmd + , (Comma) Zoom out of note content
Shift + Cmd + 0 Change note content to default size
⁵Cmd + A (When cursor is in table) Select content of active cell OR
Select table if active cell is empty
Common Shortcuts
Cmd + Z Undo previous action
Shift + Cmd + Z Reverse undo
Cmd + X Cut selected item
Cmd + C Copy selected item
Cmd + V Paste cut/copied item
Delete Delete selected item
Cmd + A Select all items
Cmd + P Open Print dialog
Cmd + , (Comma) Open app preferences
Control + Cmd + F Toggle Full Screen mode
Cmd + M Minimize window
Option + Cmd + M Minimize all windows of current app
⁶Cmd + W Close current window
Option + Cmd + W Close all windows of current app
Cmd + H Hide current app
Option + Cmd + H Hide all apps except current app
Cmd + Q Quit app
¹Shortcut does not work with multiple events, but if you switch between events when Inspector is active, its contents are updated accordingly.

²Shortcut may not be available if iCloud is not enabled.

³If multiple reminders are selected, Info popup for last selected reminder is displayed.

⁴If cursor is in last row, shortcut adds new row to table.

⁵When active cell is populated, press shortcut twice to select table.

⁶In Reminders and Notes, shortcut quits app after closing window.

Bullet Journaling With Mac Productivity Apps

The default productivity apps on macOS are not only easy to use, but also quite flexible. You can use them to bring offline note-taking methods online. For example, you can create a Bullet Journal on your Mac with Calendar, Reminders, or Notes.

Image Credit: Colton Sturgeon on Unsplash

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If the coronavirus is really airborne, we might be fighting it the wrong way

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This was the week airborne transmission became a big deal in the public discussion about covid-19. Over 200 scientists from around the world cosigned a letter to the World Health Organization urging it to take seriously the growing evidence that the coronavirus can be transmitted through the air. WHO stopped short of redefining SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes covid-19) as airborne but did acknowledge that more research is “urgently needed to investigate such instances and assess their significance for transmission of COVID-19.”

“I honestly don’t know what people are waiting for,” says microbiologist Chad Roy of Tulane University in the US. “It doesn’t take WHO coming out to make a proclamation that it’s airborne for us to appreciate this is an airborne disease. I don’t know how much clearer it needs to be in terms of scientific evidence.” 

So what does “airborne” really mean in this context? It’s basically an issue of size. We’re pretty sure that SARS-CoV-2 is spread through tiny droplets that contain viral particles capable of leading to an infection. For a virus to be airborne, however, means a few different things, depending on the expert you’re talking to. Typically it means it can spread via inhalation over long distances, perhaps even through different rooms, of small particles known as aerosols.

“That’s why when you ask some of the professionals if the virus is airborne, they’ll say it’s not, because we’re not seeing transmission over those sorts of distances,” says Lisa Brosseau, a retired professor of public health who still consults for businesses and organizations.

There is also some debate on what we mean by “aerosol.” The droplets that carry viral particles through the air can come in all sorts of sizes, but while the larger ones will drop quickly to the ground or other surfaces, the smaller ones (just a few microns across) can linger in the air for a while, giving them a chance to be inhaled. The word is mostly used to describe these smaller particles, although Brosseau would prefer the term “aerosol transmission” to cover the entire gamut of inhalable viral particles being expelled into the air—large and small alike. 

If SARS-CoV-2 is airborne, it’s far from the only disease. Measles is notorious for being able to last in the air for up to two hours. Tuberculosis, though a bacterium, can be airborne for six hours, and Brosseau suggests that coronavirus superspreaders (people who seem to eject a larger amount of the virus than others) disseminate the virus in patterns that recall the infectiousness of tuberculosis.

The evidence that this type of transmission is happening with SARS-CoV-2  arguably already exists. Several big studies point to airborne transmission of the virus as a major route for the spread of covid-19. Other studies have suggested the virus can remain in aerosolized droplets for hours. One new study led by Roy and his team at Tulane shows that infectious aerosolized particles of SARS-CoV-2 could actually linger in the air for up to 16 hours, and maintain infectivity much longer than MERS and SARS-CoV-1 (the other big coronaviruses to emerge this century). 

We still don’t know what gives SARS-CoV-2 this airborne edge. “But it may be one reason this is a pandemic, and not simply a small outbreak like any other coronavirus,” says Roy. 

How to stay safe

Whether the virus is airborne isn’t simply a scientific question. If it is, it could mean that in places where the virus has not been properly contained (e.g., the US), the economy needs to be reopened more slowly, under tighter regulations that reinforce current health practices as well as introducing improved ones. Our current tactics for stopping the spread won’t be enough.

Roy would like to see aggressive mandates on strict mask use for anyone leaving home. “This virus sheds like crazy,” he says. “Masking can do an incredible amount in breaking transmission. I think anything that can promote the use of masking, to stop the production of aerosols in the environment, would be helpful.” 

Brosseau, however, says that though masks can limit the spread of larger particles, they are less helpful for smaller ones, especially if they fit only loosely. “I wish we would stop relying on the idea that face coverings are going to solve everything and help flatten the curve,” she says. “It’s magical thinking—it’s not going to happen.” For masks to really make a difference, they would need to be worn all the time, even around family.

Brosseau does believe the evidence is trending toward the conclusion that airborne transmission is “the primary and possibly most important mode of transmission for SARS-CoV-2.” She says, “I think the amount of time and effort devoted to sanitizing every single surface over and over and over again has been a huge waste of time. We don’t need to worry so much about cleaning every single surface we touch.” Instead, the focus should be on other factors, like where we spend our time.

Crowded spaces

One of the biggest questions we still have about covid-19 is how much of a viral load is needed to cause infection. The answer changes if we think it is aerosols that we need to worry about. Smaller particles won’t carry as large a viral load as bigger ones, but because they can linger in the air for much longer, it may not matter—they’ll build up in larger concentrations and get distributed more widely the longer an infected person is around to expel aerosolized virus. 

The more people you have coming in and out of an indoor space, the more likely it is that someone who is infected will show up. The longer those infected individuals spend in that space, the higher the concentration of virus in the air over time. This is particularly bad news for spaces where people congregate for hours on end, like restaurants, bars, offices, classrooms, and churches. 

Airborne transmission doesn’t necessarily mean these places must stay closed (although that would be ideal). But wiping down surfaces with disinfectant, and having everyone wear masks, won’t be enough. To safely reopen, these spots will not just need to reduce the number of people allowed inside at any given moment; they will also need to reduce the amount of time those people spend there. Increasing social distancing beyond six feet would also help keep people safer. 

Ventilation needs to be a higher priority too. This is going to be a big problem for older buildings that usually have worse ventilation systems, and areas with a lot of those might need to remain closed for much longer. The impact of asymptomatic spread (transmission by people who don’t feel ill) and superspreaders only compounds the problem even further. But research conducted by the US Department of Homeland Security has shown that in the presence of UV light, aerosolized particles of the size the Tulane researchers studied would disappear in less than a minute. A number of businesses have begun deploying UV-armed robots to disinfect hospital rooms, shopping malls, stores, public transit stations, and more.

For many places, considerable delays in economic reopening might ultimately be the price of getting the virus under control. Otherwise the kind of thing that happened when a single open bar in Michigan led to an outbreak of more than 170 new cases could become commonplace. 

For Brosseau, the best strategy is simply to behave as we did in the early days of lockdown—stay home, and avoid coming into contact with anyone you don’t live with. And if you have to leave home, she says, “all I can say is spend as little time as possible in an enclosed space, in an area that’s well ventilated, with as few people as possible.”



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Mmm… Obfuscated Shell Donuts

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In case you grow tired of clear-written, understandable code, obfuscation contests provide a nice change of scenery, and trying to make sense of their entries can be a fun-time activity and an interesting alternative to the usual brainteasers. If we ever happen to see a Simpsons episode on the subject, [Andy Sloane] has the obvious candidate for a [Hackerman Homer] entry: a rotating ASCII art donut, formatted as donut-shaped C code.

The code itself actually dates back to 2006, but has recently resurfaced on Reddit after [Lex Fridman] posted a video about it on YouTube, so we figured we take that chance to give some further attention to this nifty piece of art. [Andy]’s blog article goes in all the details of the rotation math, and how he simply uses ASCII characters with different pixel amounts to emulate the illumination. For those who prefer C over mathematical notation, we added a reformatted version after the break.

Sure, the code’s donut shape is mainly owed to the added filler comments, but let’s face it, the donut shape is just a neat little addition, and the code wouldn’t be any less impressive squeezed all in one line — or multiple lines of appropriate lengths. However, for the actual 2006 IOCCC, [Andy] took it a serious step further with his entry, and you should definitely give that one a try. For some more obfuscated shell animations, check out the fluid dynamics simulator from a few years back, and for a more recent entry, have a look at the printf Tic Tac Toe we covered last month.

int k;
double sin();
double cos();

main() {
  float A=0;
  float B=0;
  float i;
  float j;
  float z[1760];
  char  b[1760];

  printf("x1b[2J");

  for (;;) {
    memset(b, 32, 1760);
    memset(z, 0, 7040);

    for (j = 0; 6.28 > j; j += 0.07) {
      for (i = 0; 6.28 > i; i += 0.02) {
        float c = sin(i);
        float d = cos(j);
        float e = sin(A);
        float f = sin(j);
        float g = cos(A);
        float h = d + 2;
        float D = 1 / (c * h * e + f * g + 5);
        float l = cos(i);
        float m = cos(B);
        float n = sin(B);
        float t = c * h * g - f * e;

        int x = 40 + 30 * D * (l * h * m - t * n);
        int y = 12 + 15 * D * (l * h * n + t * m);
        int o = x + 80 * y;
        int N = 8 * ((f * e - c * d * g) * m - c * d * e - f * g - l * d * n);

        if (22 > y && y > 0 && x > 0 && 80 > x && D > z[o]) {
          z[o] = D;
          b[o] = ".,-~:;=!*#$@"[N > 0 ? N : 0];
        }
      }
    }

    printf("x1b[H");
    
    for (k = 0; 1761 > k; k++) {
      putchar(k % 80 ? b[k] : 10);
    }

    A += 0.04;
    B += 0.02;
  }
}

If you want to slow down (or speed up) the animation, decrease (or increase) the values added to A and B at the very end of the loop. Keep them in the same proportion to retain the rotation animation, or just play around with them and see what happens.

Remember to link against the Math library with -lm when compiling.

[via /r/programming]



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