(Washington D.C.) — Time is running out on an arms control treaty that, if it’s allowed to expire, will leave the world with no legal restrictions on U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons for the first time in nearly half a century.
If President Donald Trump doesn’t extend the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty — only remaining U.S.-Russia arms control pact — or succeed in negotiating a replacement treaty, it will expire on Feb. 5. That’s just 16 days after Trump begins a second term or his successor is sworn into office.
Russia has offered to extend New START for up to five years, but Trump is holding out. He thinks China, which is expected to double its stockpile of nuclear weapons in the next decade, should have to sign on to a nuclear arms control accord, too.
The future of New START was further called into question with Trump’s announcement Thursday that the U.S. intends to withdraw from another treaty that permits observation flights over the U.S., Russia and more than 30 other nations.
Trump voiced his desire for a three-way arms control agreement months ago, but that effort is still in the starting blocks.
Marshall Billingslea, who was appointed last month as the president’s special envoy for arms control, said Thursday that he had his first secure phone call with his counterpart in Moscow, Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Ryabkov. Billingslea said they agreed to meet, talk about their objectives and find a way to begin negotiations.
“Suffice to say, this won’t be easy. It is new,” Billingslea said, adding that the U.S. fully expects Russia to help bring China to the table.
Russian officials and many arms control experts agree that China, as a rising power, should be part of a nuclear arms accord, but they are eyeing the calendar.
“It’s really hard to see how, in the midst of a pandemic that would make actual in-person negotiations quite difficult, you’re going to get something done and ratified and in force before the New START treaty expires on Feb. 5, 2021,” said Alexandra Bell at the Center for Arms Control and Non-proliferation.
They note how Trump’s reelection campaign, the coronavirus pandemic and the economic problems it has created are consuming a lot of time. Negotiating complex nuclear accords can take years, and even the president, who has blamed Beijing for not stopping the spread of the virus, has said he’s doesn’t want to talk to President Xi Jinping right now.
A spokesman for the Chinese Foreign Ministry, Geng Shuang, said in January that China has “no intention to participate” in trilateral arms control negotiations. Billingslea, however, is optimistic that Beijing will want to joint in and be seen as a world power.
New START imposes limits on the number of U.S. and Russian long-range nuclear warheads and launchers. If it were to collapse, it would be the first time in 50 years that the U.S. does not have the ability to inspect Russian nuclear forces, said Rose Gottemoeller, a former undersecretary of state for arms control and international security.
“Every time they (the Russians) take a missile out of a silo and take it to a maintenance facility, they have to notify us that that missile’s going to move. … The intelligence community is simply going to have a much harder time knowing what’s going on,” she said.
But Trump has accused Russia of not living up to agreements. He cited Russian violations in his announcement Thursday that the U.S. would withdraw from the Open Skies Treaty. While the U.S. has officially given its required six-month notice of withdrawal, Trump hinted that he may reconsider and stay in the pact.
Trump also blamed Russian violations for his decision last year to pull out of the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty that banned production, testing and deployment of intermediate-range land-based cruise and ballistic missiles.
Russia’s Foreign Ministry on Friday accused the U.S. of aiming to dismantle security pacts. Withdrawing from the Opens Skies Treaty “fully fits into (the U.S.) line on the destruction of the entire complex of agreements in the field of arms control and confidence-building in the military field,” the ministry said.
Senior U.S. administration officials say Trump’s willingness to withdraw from treaties shows he is serious about compliance and is evidence of how prominently arms control verification and compliance will feature in New START talks.
“We are not in the business of negotiating new agreements, or extending old ones, if we cannot be assured that the other parties will hold up their end of the bargain,” Billingslea said. “When it comes to Russia, we have little reason to be confident. Russia’s track record is, to be frank, abysmal.”
The U.S. and Russia have about 91 percent of the world’s nuclear warheads, according to the Federation of American Scientists. The U.S. has 3,800 in its stockpile and Russia has 4,310. China has 320 nuclear warheads, although the Defense Intelligence Agency predicted last year that China was likely to at least double the size of its stockpile during the next 10 years.
With the U.S. presidential election just five months away, the question is whether Trump has enough time to negotiate a grand, three-way deal, especially given China’s reticence to participate.
Timothy Morrison, an arms control expert and former adviser to Trump on Russia and Europe at the National Security Council, said at a nuclear weapons forum in January that as the months go by, Trump may be “left with a binary question of extend or not extend” New START.
“Time is not on the president’s side,” he said.
Thousands in London Chant ‘Black Lives Matter’ While Joining Worldwide George Floyd Protests
(LONDON) — Thousands of people demonstrated in London on Wednesday against police violence and racial injustice following the killing of George Floyd in Minneapolis, which has set off days of unrest in the United States.
Chanting “Black lives matter,” thousands gathered in Hyde Park, central London’s biggest open space and a traditional protest venue. Many of them passed through barriers at the park and marched through the streets, blocking traffic. There were no signs of violence, although some sprayed graffiti on walls.
Some protesters converged on Parliament and the nearby office of Prime Minister Boris Johnson at 10 Downing St. Others headed south of the River Thames.
“Star Wars” actor John Boyega, who was born in Britain to Nigerian parents and grew up in south London’s Peckham neighborhood, pleaded tearfully for demonstrators to stay peaceful.
“Because they want us to mess up, they want us to be disorganized, but not today,” he said.
Boyega recalled the case of Stephen Lawrence, an 18-year-old black man from southeast London who was stabbed to death in 1993 as he waited for a bus. The case against his attackers collapsed in 1996, and a government report cited institutional racism on the part of the London police force as a key factor in its failure to thoroughly investigate the killing.
“Black lives have always mattered,” Boyega said. “We have always been important. We have always meant something. We have always succeeded regardless and now is the time. I ain’t waiting.”
Police appeared to keep a low profile during the demonstration and the ensuing marches.
Earlier, the U.K.’s most senior police officer said she was “appalled” by Floyd’s death and “horrified” by the subsequent violence in U.S. cities. Floyd died May 25 after a white Minneapolis officer, Derek Chauvin, pressed his knee on the handcuffed black man’s neck for several minutes.
“I do want to reassure people in London … that we will continue with our tradition of policing, using minimum force necessary, working as closely as we possibly can with our communities,” Metropolitan Police Commissioner Dame Cressida Dick told the London Assembly police and crime committee.
“Met officers and staff are highly professional, they’re very well trained, they’re very restrained and they’re also very, very highly scrutinized, something we don’t flinch from at all,” Dick said.
While the London protesters expressed solidarity with Americans protesting Floyd’s death, many also pointed to issues closer to home. “Racism is a pandemic,” said one placard at the London demonstration.
Other protests are taking place around the world, including in Cape Town, South Africa, and in Reykjavík, Iceland.
In Cape Town, about 20 people gathered at the gates of the parliament complex and held up signs with the slogans of “Black Lives Matter” and “Justice 4 George Floyd and Collins Khosa.”
Khosa is died a month ago after being confronted by soldiers and police in Johannesburg’s Alexandra township. Family members say he died hours after he was choked and beaten.
A South African army investigation cleared the soldiers of wrongdoing, but lawyers for Khosa’s family say they will challenge those findings.
The London demonstrators appeared to ignore coronavirus social distancing guidelines in the U.K., where people have been told to stay 2 meters (6 feet) apart.
Some of them carried placards saying “Justice for Belly Mujinga,” a 47-year-old railway station worker who died of coronavirus in April, weeks after an incident in which she said she was coughed and spat upon by a customer who claimed to be infected.
Her death has come to symbolize the high toll the virus has taken on ethnic minority Britons and front-line workers — and, for some, social injustice. Police did not bring charges against the man accused of confronting Mujinga, saying an investigation had shown he did not infect her and there was no evidence to substantiate a criminal offense.
The coronavirus outbreak has exposed divisions and inequalities within the U.K. A government-commissioned report Tuesday confirmed that ethnic minorities in Britain experienced a higher death rate from the coronavirus than whites.
Figures from London’s Metropolitan Police also show that black and ethnic minority Londoners were more likely than their white counterparts to be fined or arrested for breaking lockdown rules barring gatherings or nonessential travel.
Metropolitan Police figures show that black people received 26% of the 973 fines handed out by police between March 27 and May 14, and accounted for 31% of arrests. They make up about 12% of London’s population. People from Asian, black, mixed and other backgrounds received more than half of the fines and arrests, but account for about 40% of the city’s population.
The police force said the reasons for the discrepancy were “complex.” But Owen West, a former police chief superintendent, said racism was a potential factor.
“The U.K. police service has massive issues with discrimination … and I really do think now is the time to confront it,” he told the BBC.
‘Dangerous:’ Around the World, Police Chokeholds Are Being Scrutinized
LE PECQ, France — Three days after George Floyd died with a Minneapolis police officer choking off his air, another black man writhed on the tarmac of a street in Paris as a police officer knelt on his neck during an arrest.
Immobilization techniques where officers apply pressure with their knees on prone suspects are used in policing around the world and have long drawn criticism. One reason why Floyd’s death is sparking anger and touching nerves globally is that such techniques have been blamed for asphyxiations and other deaths in police custody beyond American shores, often involving non-white suspects.
“We cannot say that the American situation is foreign to us,” said French lawmaker Francois Ruffin, who has pushed for a ban on the police use of face-down holds that are implicated in multiple deaths in France, a parliamentary effort put on hold by the coronavirus pandemic.
The muscular arrest on May 28 in Paris of a black man who was momentarily immobilized face-up with an officer’s knee and upper shin pressing down on his jaw, neck and upper chest is among those that have drawn angry comparisons with the killing of Floyd on May 25 in Minneapolis.
The Paris arrest was filmed by bystanders and widely shared and viewed online. Police said the man was driving under the influence of drugs and alcohol and without a license and that he resisted arrest and insulted officers. His case was turned over to prosecutors.
In Hong Kong, where police behavior is a hot-button issue after months of anti-government protests, the city’s force says it is investigating the death of a man who was immobilized face-down during his arrest in May by officers who were filmed kneeling on his shoulder, back and neck.
Police rules and procedures on chokeholds and restraints vary internationally.
In Belgium, police instructor Stany Durieux says he reprimands trainees, docking them points, “every time I see a knee applied to the spinal column.”
“It is also forbidden to lean on a suspect completely, as this can crush his rib cage and suffocate him,” he said.
Condemned by police and experts in the United States, Floyd’s death also drew criticism from officers abroad who disassociated themselves from the behavior of Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin. He was charged with third-degree murder after he was filmed pushing down with his knee on Floyd’s neck until Floyd stopped crying out that he couldn’t breathe and eventually stopped moving.
In Israel, police spokesman Micky Rosenfeld said “there is no tactic or protocol that calls to put pressure on the neck or airway.”
In Germany, officers are allowed to briefly exert pressure on the side of a suspect’s head but not on the neck, says Germany‘s GdP police union.
In the U.K., the College of Policing says prone suspects should be placed on their side or in a sitting, kneeling or standing position “as soon as practicable.” Guidance on the website of London’s police force discourages the use of neck restraints, saying “any form of pressure to the neck area can be highly dangerous.”
Even within countries, procedures can vary.
The thick Patrol Guide, hundreds of pages long, for the New York Police Department says in bold capitals that officers “SHALL NOT” use chokeholds and should “avoid actions which may result in chest compression, such as sitting, kneeling, or standing on a subject’s chest or back, thereby reducing the subject’s ability to breathe.”
But the so-called “sleeper hold,” where pressure is applied to the neck with an arm, blocking blood flow, was allowed for police in San Diego before Floyd’s death triggered a shift. Police Chief David Nisleit said he would this week order an end to the tactic.
Gendarmes in France are discouraged from pressing down on the chests and vital organs of prone suspects and are no longer taught to apply pressure to the neck, said Col. Laurent De La Follye de Joux, head of training for the force.
“You don’t need to be a doctor to understand that it is dangerous,” he said.
But instructions for the National Police, the other main law and order force in France, appear to give its officers more leeway. Issued in 2015, they say pressure on a prone suspect’s chest “should be as short as possible.”
Christophe Rouget, a police union official who briefed lawmakers for their deliberations in March about the proposal to ban suffocating techniques, said if officers don’t draw pistols or use stun-guns then immobilizing people face-down is the safest option, stopping suspects from kicking out at arresting officers.
“We don’t have 5,000 options,” he said. “These techniques are used by all the police in the world because they represent the least amount of danger. The only thing is that they have to be well used. In the United States, we saw that it wasn’t well used, with pressure applied in the wrong place and for too long.”
He added that the “real problem” in France is that officers don’t get enough follow-up training after being taught restraints in police school.
“You need to repeat them often to do them well,” he said.
The Public Safety LTE & 5G Market: 2020 – 2030 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts
With the standardization of MCX (Mission-Critical PTT, Video & Data), IOPS (Isolated Operation for Public Safety), HPUE (High-Power User Equipment) and other critical communications features by the 3GPP, LTE and 5G NR (New Radio) networks are increasingly gaining recognition as an all-inclusive public safety communications platform for the delivery of real-time video, high-resolution imagery, multimedia messaging, mobile office/field data applications, location services and mapping, situational awareness, unmanned asset control and other broadband capabilities, as well as MCPTT (Mission-Critical PTT) voice and narrowband data services provided by traditional LMR (Land Mobile Radio) systems.Read the full report: https://www.reportlinker.com/p05903652/?utm_source=PRN A myriad of dedicated, hybrid commercial-private and MVNO-based public safety LTE and 5G-ready networks are operational or in the process of being rolled out throughout the globe. In addition to the high-profile FirstNet, South Korea's Safe-Net and Britain's ESN nationwide public safety broadband projects, many additional national-level engagements have recently come to light – most notably, the Royal Thai Police's LTE network which is already operational in the greater Bangkok region, Finland's VIRVE 2.0 mission-critical mobile broadband service, France's PCSTORM critical communications broadband project, and Russia's secure 450 MHz LTE network for police forces, emergency services and the national guard.Other operational and pilot deployments range from nationwide systems in the oil-rich GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) region to local and city-level private LTE networks for first responders in markets as diverse as Canada, China, Laos, Indonesia, the Philippines, Pakistan, Lebanon, Egypt, Kenya, Ghana, Cote D'Ivoire, Cameroon, Mali, Madagascar, Mauritius, Canary Islands, Spain, Italy, Serbia, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador and Trinidad & Tobago, as well as multi-domain critical communications broadband networks such as Nordic Telecom in the Czech Republic and MRC's (Mobile Radio Center) LTE-based advanced MCA digital radio system in Japan, and secure MVNO platforms in countries including but not limited to Mexico, Belgium, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Sweden, Slovenia and Estonia.In addition, even though critical public safety-related 5G NR capabilities are yet to be standardized as part of the 3GPP's Release 17 specifications, public safety agencies have already begun experimenting with 5G for applications that can benefit from the technology's high-bandwidth and low-latency characteristics. For example, New Zealand Police are utilizing mobile operator Vodafone's 5G NR network to share real-time UHD (Ultra High Definition) video feeds from cellular-equipped drones and police cruisers with officers on the ground and command posts. In the near future, we also expect to see rollouts of localized 5G NR systems for incident scene management and related use cases, potentially using up to 50 MHz of Band n79 spectrum in the 4.9 GHz frequency range (4,940-4,990 MHz) which has been designated for public safety use in multiple countries including but not limited to the United States, Canada, Australia, Malaysia and Qatar.The analyst estimates that annual investments in public safety LTE/5G-ready infrastructure will surpass $2 Billion by the end of 2020, predominantly driven by new build-outs and the expansion of existing dedicated and hybrid commercial-private networks in a variety of licensed bands across 420/450 MHz, 700 MHz, 800 MHz, 1.4 GHz and higher frequencies, in addition to secure MVNO networks for critical communications. Complemented by a rapidly expanding ecosystem of public safety-grade LTE/5G devices, the market will further grow at a CAGR of approximately 10% between 2020 and 2023, eventually accounting for more than $3 Billion by the end of 2023.The "Public Safety LTE & 5G Market: 2020 – 2030 – Opportunities, Challenges, Strategies & Forecasts" report presents an in-depth assessment of the public safety LTE/5G market including market drivers, challenges, enabling technologies, application scenarios, use cases, operational models, key trends, standardization, spectrum availability/allocation, regulatory landscape, case studies, opportunities, future roadmap, value chain, ecosystem player profiles and strategies. The report also presents global and regional market size forecasts from 2020 till 2030, covering public safety LTE/5G infrastructure, terminal equipment, applications, systems integration and management solutions, as well as subscriptions and service revenue.The report comes with an associated Excel datasheet suite covering quantitative data from all numeric forecasts presented in the report, as well as a list and associated details of over 500 global public safety LTE/5G engagements – as of Q2'2020.Topics CoveredThe report covers the following topics:- Public safety LTE and 5G ecosystem- Market drivers and barriers- System architecture and key elements of public safety LTE and 5G systems- Analysis of public safety broadband application scenarios and use cases – ranging from mission-critical group communications and real-time video transmission to 5G era applications centered upon UHD (Ultra High Definition Video), AR/VR/MR (Augmented, Virtual & Mixed Reality), drones and robotics- Operational models for public safety LTE and 5G networks including commercial, independent, managed, shared core, hybrid commercial-private and secure MVNO networks- PPPs (Public-Private Partnerships) and other common approaches to financing and delivering dedicated public safety LTE and 5G networks- MCX (Mission-Critical PTT, Video & Data), IOPS (Isolated Operation for Public Safety), deployable LTE/5G systems, ProSe (Proximity Services) for D2D (Device-to-Device) communications, HPUE (High Power User Equipment), QPP (QoS, Priority & Preemption), network slicing, end-to-end security, high-precision positioning, 3GPP access over satellite/NTN (Non-Terrestrial Networking) platforms and other enabling technologies- Key trends including hybrid RAN (Radio Access Network) implementations for nationwide public safety broadband networks, local and city-level LTE deployments to support police forces in developing countries, adoption of sub-500 MHz spectrum for mission-critical LTE networks, commercial readiness of 3GPP-compliant MCX functionality, LMR-based interim solutions for off-network communications, secure MVNO solutions with cross-border roaming, mobile operator-branded critical communications broadband platforms, 5G NR connectivity for applications requiring higher data rates and lower latencies, and localized 5G NR networks for incident scene management- Review of public safety LTE/5G engagements worldwide including a detailed assessment of 10 nationwide public safety broadband projects and additional case studies of over 40 dedicated, hybrid, MVNO and commercial operator-supplied systems- Spectrum availability, allocation and usage for public safety LTE and 5G networks across the global, regional and national regulatory domains- Standardization, regulatory and collaborative initiatives- Future roadmap and value chain- Profiles and strategies of 1,100 ecosystem players including LTE/5G equipment suppliers and public safety-domain specialists- Strategic recommendations for public safety and government agencies, LTE/5G infrastructure, device and chipset suppliers, LMR vendors, system integrators, and commercial/private mobile operators- Market analysis and forecasts from 2020 till 2030Forecast SegmentationMarket forecasts are provided for each of the following submarkets and their subcategories:Public Safety LTE & 5G Network InfrastructureSubmarkets- RAN (Radio Access Network)- Mobile Core- Backhaul & TransportTechnology Generations- LTE- 5G NRRAN Base Station (eNB/gNB) Cell Sizes- Macrocells- Small CellsRAN Base Station (eNB/gNB) Mobility Categories- Fixed Base Stations- Deployable Base StationsDeployable RAN Base Station (eNB/gNB) Form Factors- NIB (Network-in-a-Box)- Vehicular COWs (Cells-on-Wheels)- Aerial Cell Sites- Maritime PlatformsBackhaul & Transport Network Transmission Mediums- Fiber & Wireline- Microwave- SatellitePublic Safety LTE & 5G Terminal EquipmentTechnology Generations- LTE- 5G NRForm Factors- Smartphones & Handportable Terminals- Mobile & Vehicular Routers- Fixed CPEs (Customer Premises Equipment)- Tablets & Notebook PCs- Smart Wearables- IoT Modules, Dongles & OthersPublic Safety LTE & 5G Subscriptions/Service RevenueTechnology Generations- LTE- 5G NRNetwork Types- Dedicated & Hybrid Commercial-Private Networks- Secure MVNO Networks- Commercial Mobile NetworksPublic Safety LTE & 5G Systems Integration & Management SolutionsSubmarkets- Network Integration & Testing- Device Management & User Services- Managed Services, Operations & Maintenance- CybersecurityPublic Safety Broadband ApplicationsSubmarkets- Mission-Critical Voice & Group Communications- Real-Time Video Transmission- Messaging, File Transfer & Presence Services- Mobile Office & Field Applications- Location Services & Mapping- Situational Awareness- Command & Control- AR/VR/MR (Augmented, Virtual & Mixed Reality)Regional Markets- North America- Asia Pacific- Europe- Middle East & Africa- Latin & Central AmericaKey Questions AnsweredThe report provides answers to the following key questions:- How big is the public safety LTE and 5G opportunity?- What trends, drivers and barriers are influencing its growth?- How is the ecosystem evolving by segment and region?- What will the market size be in 2023, and at what rate will it grow?- Which regions and submarkets will see the highest percentage of growth?- What is the status of dedicated, hybrid commercial-private and secure MVNO-based public safety broadband networks worldwide?- What are the key application scenarios and use cases of LTE and 5G for first responders?- When will FirstNet, Safe-Net, ESN and other nationwide public safety broadband networks replace existing digital LMR systems?- What opportunities exist for commercial mobile operators and critical communications service providers?- What are the future prospects of NIB (Network-in-a-Box), COWs (Cell-on-Wheels), drone-mounted aerial cells and other rapidly deployable LTE and 5G NR systems?- How does standardization impact the adoption of LTE and 5G for public safety communications?- When will MCX, IOPS, ProSe, HPUE and other 3GPP-defined critical communications features be widely employed in public safety broadband networks?- How will network slicing provide dynamic QoS guarantees and isolation for public safety applications in 5G networks?- What are the existing and candidate frequency bands for the operation of public safety broadband networks?- How can public safety stakeholders leverage excess spectrum capacity to ensure the economic viability of dedicated LTE and LTE networks?- Who are the key ecosystem players, and what are their strategies?- What strategies should LTE/5G infrastructure suppliers, LMR vendors, system integrators and mobile operators adopt to remain competitive?Key FindingsThe report has the following key findings:- The analyst estimates that annual investments in public safety LTE/5G-ready infrastructure will surpass $2 Billion by the end of 2020, predominantly driven by new build-outs and the expansion of existing dedicated and hybrid commercial-private networks in addition to secure MVNO networks for critical communications. Complemented by a rapidly expanding ecosystem of public safety-grade LTE/5G devices, the market will further grow at a CAGR of approximately 10% between 2020 and 2023, eventually accounting for more than $3 Billion by the end of 2023.- Public safety LTE networks are playing an integral role in ongoing response efforts to combat the global COVID-19 pandemic. For example, in the United States, the FirstNet communications platform is being leveraged to deliver prioritized voice, data, video and location services for first responders and medical personnel – including mobile telehealth applications to facilitate remote screening and monitoring, as well as temporary coverage and capacity expansion for pop-up testing sites, quarantine centers and healthcare facilities using rapidly deployable cellular assets and in-building wireless systems.- In addition to the high-profile FirstNet, South Korea's Safe-Net and Britain's ESN nationwide public safety broadband projects, many additional national-level engagements have recently come to light – most notably, the Royal Thai Police's LTE network which is already operational in the greater Bangkok region, Finland's VIRVE 2.0 mission-critical mobile broadband service, France's PCSTORM critical communications broadband project, and Russia's secure 450 MHz LTE network for police forces, emergency services and the national guard.- Other operational and pilot deployments range from nationwide systems in the oil-rich GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) region to local and city-level private LTE networks for first responders in markets as diverse as Canada, China, Laos, Indonesia, the Philippines, Pakistan, Lebanon, Egypt, Kenya, Ghana, Cote D'Ivoire, Cameroon, Mali, Madagascar, Mauritius, Canary Islands, Spain, Italy, Serbia, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador and Trinidad & Tobago, as well as multi-domain critical communications broadband networks such as Nordic Telecom in the Czech Republic and MRC's (Mobile Radio Center) LTE-based advanced MCA digital radio system in Japan, and secure MVNO platforms in countries including but not limited to Mexico, Belgium, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Sweden, Slovenia and Estonia.- Although the aforementioned references to several developing economies in the list of early adopters may come as a surprise, the lack of well-established digital LMR systems in many of these countries makes it possible to leapfrog directly from ageing analog technologies to LTE-based critical communications networks for both voice and broadband services, without the complex and time-consuming challenges associated with transitioning from large-scale and nationwide digital LMR networks.- In much of the developed world, digital LMR networks are unlikely to be fully replaced by LTE and 5G until the late 2020s to early 2030s, especially in markets where large-scale systems have been rolled out or upgraded recently – for example, Germany's BDBOS, Norway's Nodnett and the Netherlands' C2000 TETRA networks.- Leveraging their extensive LTE/5G NR-capable cellular infrastructure assets and technical expertise, mobile operators have managed to establish a foothold in the public safety broadband market – with active involvement in some of the largest public safety LTE/5G engagements using both commercial and dedicated public safety spectrum.- Dozens of vendors have already developed both client and application server implementations that are compliant with 3GPP's MCPTT, MCVideo and MCData specifications. Frontrunner customers – for example, South Korea's National Police Agency – have already begun transitioning to 3GPP-compliant MCX functionality, and we expect to see larger production-grade rollouts of the technology – beginning with MCPTT – in 2020.- Due to the commercial immaturity of 3GPP-specified ProSe (Proximity Services) functionality, a number of interim solutions are being employed to fulfill direct mode, off-network communications requirements. These range from hybrid TETRA/P25-LTE capable terminals to LMR-based RSMs (Remote Speaker Microphones) and detachable accessories that attach to existing LTE devices to facilitate D2D communications over a sufficient coverage radius.- Even though critical public safety-related 5G NR capabilities are yet to be standardized as part of the 3GPP's Release 17 specifications, public safety agencies have already begun experimenting with 5G for applications that can benefit from the technology's high-bandwidth and low-latency characteristics. For example, New Zealand Police are utilizing mobile operator Vodafone's 5G NR network to share real-time UHD (Ultra High Definition) video feeds from cellular-equipped drones and police cruisers with officers on the ground and command posts.- In the near future, we also expect to see rollouts of localized 5G NR systems for incident scene management and related use cases, potentially using up to 50 MHz of Band n79 spectrum in the 4.9 GHz frequency range (4,940-4,990 MHz) which has been designated for public safety use in multiple countries including but not limited to the United States, Canada, Australia, Malaysia and Qatar.- As public safety-grade 5G implementations become well-established in the 2020s, real-time UHD video transmission through coordinated fleets of drones, 5G-equipped autonomous police robots, smart ambulances, AR (Augmented Reality) firefighting helmets and other sophisticated public safety broadband applications will become a common sight.Companies Mentioned• Afghanistan• Albania• Algeria• Andorra• Angola• Anguilla• Antigua & Barbuda• Argentina• Armenia• Aruba• Australia• Austria• Azerbaijan• Bahamas• Bahrain• Bangladesh• Barbados• Belarus• Belgium• Belize• Benin• Bermuda• Bhutan• Bolivia• Bosnia Herzegovina• Botswana• Brazil• British Virgin Islands• Brunei• Bulgaria• Burkina Faso• Burundi• Cambodia• Cameroon• Canada• Cape Verde• Cayman Islands• Central African Republic• Chad• Chile• China• Cocos Islands• Colombia• Comoros Islands• Congo• Cook Islands• Costa Rica• Côte d'Ivoire• Croatia• Cuba• Cyprus• Czech Republic• Democratic Rep of Congo (ex-Zaire)• Denmark• Djibouti• Dominica• Dominican Republic• East Timor• Ecuador• Egypt• El Salvador• Equatorial Guinea• Eritrea• Estonia• Ethiopia• Faroe Islands• Federated States of Micronesia• Fiji• Finland• France• French Guiana• French Polynesia (ex-Tahiti)• French West Indies• Gabon• Gambia• Georgia• Germany• Ghana• Gibraltar• Greece• Greenland• Grenada• Guam• Guatemala• Guernsey• Guinea Republic• Guinea-Bissau• Guyana• Haiti• Honduras• Hong Kong• Hungary• Iceland• India• Indonesia• Iran• Iraq• Ireland• Isle of Man• Israel• Italy• Jamaica• Japan• Jersey• Jordan• Kazakhstan• Kenya• Kirghizstan• Kiribati• Korea• Kosovo• Kuwait• Laos• Latvia• Lebanon• Lesotho• Liberia• Libya• Liechtenstein• Lithuania• Luxembourg• Macau• Macedonia• Madagascar• Malawi• Malaysia• Maldives• Mali• Malta• Marshall Islands• Mauritania• Mauritius• Mayotte• Mexico• Moldova• Monaco• Mongolia• Montenegro• Montserrat• Morocco• Mozambique• Myanmar• Namibia• Nepal• Netherlands• Netherlands Antilles• New Caledonia• New Zealand• Nicaragua• Niger• Nigeria• Niue• North Korea• Northern Marianas• Norway• Oman• Pakistan• Palau• Palestine• Panama• Papua New Guinea• Paraguay• Peru• Philippines• Poland• Portugal• Puerto Rico• Qatar• Réunion• Romania• Russia• Rwanda• Samoa• Samoa (American)• Sao Tomé & Principe• Saudi Arabia• Senegal• Serbia• Seychelles• Sierra Leone• Singapore• Slovak Republic• Slovenia• Solomon Islands• Somalia• South Africa• Spain• Sri Lanka• St Kitts & Nevis• St Lucia• St Vincent & The Grenadines• Sudan• Suriname• Swaziland• Sweden• Switzerland• Syria• Tajikistan• Taiwan• Tanzania• Thailand• Togo• Tonga• Trinidad & Tobago• Tunisia• Turkey• Turkmenistan• Turks & Caicos Islands• UAE• Uganda• UK• Ukraine• Uruguay• US Virgin Islands• USA• Uzbekistan• Vanuatu• Venezuela• Vietnam• Yemen• Zambia• ZimbabweRead the full report: https://www.reportlinker.com/p05903652/?utm_source=PRN About Reportlinker ReportLinker is an award-winning market research solution. Reportlinker finds and organizes the latest industry data so you get all the market research you need – instantly, in one place. __________________________ Contact Clare: firstname.lastname@example.org US: (339)-368-6001 Intl: +1 339-368-6001
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Sun Life Asset Management brings back “Make It Mutual” campaign