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A Guide to Using Canonical Tags



A definitive, accurate, and comprehensive guide to using canonical tags. Through this guide, supported by several practical examples, you will learn what canonical tags are. You will learn how to use a canonical tag properly and how to implement them. You will also learn about common mistakes you will need to avoid with these tags.

What are canonical tags?

In its purest form, a canonical tag is a signal within a web page that says, “this piece of content is a copy of another piece of content which you can find at location X.”

A canonical tag tells Google where the other piece of content is and tells the search engines that the original location of the preferred piece of content. Using tags overcomes the duplicate content issue with Google and other search engines.

What this means is that you can add third-party content to your website without the risk of duplication penalties; there are things to consider, of course, which we will get too.

How do Google and other search engines deal with duplicate content and similar pages?

In most cases, when a search engine crawls two or more web pages that have very similar content, they will select only one of the pages to index. The selected page is generally the one that originally posted the content — although there are several factors that are considered.

In most cases, all other pages with similar content are ignored.

You will be able to find them indexed on the search engines, but they will have little to no positive effects on the overall website authority, ranking, or scoring factors.

Search engines will also look at a range of other factors when deciding which page to index, including which page was first crawled. Also under consideration is how many backlinks each page has, and which one is offering the most internal links.

Duplicate content is extremely bad for SEO, so if you are developing a Search Engine Optimisation strategy.

Make sure the content being produced (web page, blog, etc.), is fresh and avoid any duplications. Duplicate content can also harm the site potential for increased conversion rates, as content will not be shown in its best possible form.

As websites grow, it is common that multiple web pages will contain very similar information or content which are vital to the infrastructure of the website environment.

Many web pages with similar information are particularly common with larger sitemaps and eCommerce websites.

If a website has multiple pages with similar content, you can add the rel=canonical tag on the preferred source page, which will remove the risk of a duplicate content penalty.

Example of product page duplication for an eCommerce website.

What you can see here are three of the same product being used.

Look closely. Each listing has a different URL. You can see through the breadcrumbs being pointed at by the arrows. This means that the product is shown 3three times and has the same content with only very small variations between them.

These products are likely to be hit with a duplication penalty.

What you can now see is the implementation of the Canonical Tag.

We have signaled to the search engines that the original product is Bats > MRF > Classic, which would be the URL.

The other two URLs (products) are copies of the first product. Because we are telling the search engines that two products are copying the main product through the canonical tag — we avoid a duplication penalty.

Page duplication examples that require canonical links.

There will also be occasions where web page URLs have special characters added at the end of them. These special characters are called parameters and will always follow a question mark in the URL.

For example:

When adding a parameter into the URL, completely different page content is shown despite the URL seemingly pointing at the same page.

There are three different variables setting a parameter in a URL will provide:

  1. The URL parameter will show completely different content.
  2. The URL parameter will filter out certain parts of a piece of content.
  3. The URL parameter will have no effect.

Setting up a canonical tag.

The first thing you need to do is decide which page is going to be set as the preferred URL. Mostly this will be the version of the page you deem to be the most important. You can look at the page with the most links feeding to it, or the page that gets the most visitors.

If you are using a CMS (Content Management System), such as WordPress or Magento, there are a lot of different Canonical Plugins that can be used to apply a canonical link. However, if you are going straight into the code, you will need to add a <link> to the <head> section of the additional pages but NOT the preferred page.

What the tag does is demonstrate to the search engines that the preferred URL for visitors wanting to access the bat’s page. This also tells the search engine that this is the page you would prefer the visitor to reach over the other similar pages.

Yoast is a powerful SEO extension that supports WordPress sites. They have created a very useful GUIDE, which helps further explain canonical considerations.

Canonical Tags: Common mistakes.

If canonical tags are wrongly used, there can be dire consequences. For example, let’s say you set up your site where your homepage was the preferred web page, and each page within the site was a copy of the home page. In this instance, search engines would complete de-index (remove), all your web pages from search results.

There are some common mistakes which need to be avoided:

  • If you have a non-dynamic canonical tag on each page of your website, which then points to one preferred URL/web page, you will be committing SEO suicide.
  • Multiple canonical tags on a single web page are quite common. Remember search engines will only count the first one meaning anything related to others will be discounted.
  • Always use complete URLs, which include the HTTPS:// section. A common mistake it forgetting this segment of the URL.
  • Do not point product pages to category pages. Product pages always need to be indexed separately.
  • If using a canonical tag on a paginated page, you may run into problems.

Canonical tags and paginated pages.

Paginated URLs are simply a series of URLs that follow each other in sequence. A typical example of paginated URLs would be URLs in a story or a series of products, lists of blog posts, etc.

If you were writing a story that had a number of chapters and each chapter was a web page you would likely only want to send users to the first page from the search engine results pages. Then the user could access the second web page from the first web page, the third web page from the second, and so on.

In this case, a canonical tag would be as damaging as pointing every web page/chapter to the first page would mean all content from page 2 onwards would be lost and have no search rank authority at all. This is something you should avoid as users may wish to jump straight to page 2, 3 or 4.

In this instance, your paginated pages would be treated as normal web pages. And, search engines would treat them as individual web pages rather than consolidating into one piece of content.

Self-referencing canonical URLs.

This is a fiercely debated topic when it comes to best practice SEO.

John Mueller from Google has created a Best Practice GUIDE, which is quite useful.

You can avoid the potential risk of a duplicate content penalty by implementing a self-referencing canonical, and many popular CMS systems will allow these parameters without changing content.

Cross-domain canonical URLs.

You can use canonical URLs that point to another domain. In this way, if you have a piece of content that was submitted to your website, but an external site also feels the content would be of benefit to their users — you can use the rel=canonical tag to ensure the URL is linked back to the original content on your site.

The post A Guide to Using Canonical Tags appeared first on ReadWrite.

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Cellular Tracking Used During COVID-19 Pandemic



As most in the technology community know, nation states have a suite of powerful tools that can be used to trace and monitor mobile phones. By and large, this comes up in discussions of privacy and legislation now and then, before fading out of the public eye once more. In the face of a global pandemic, however, governments are now using these tools in the way many have long feared – for social control. Here’s what’s happening on the ground.

The Current Situation

With COVID-19 sweeping the globe, its high level of contagiousness and rate of hospitalizations has left authorities scrambling to contain the spread. Unprecedented lockdowns have been put in place in an attempt to flatten the curve of new cases to give medical systems the capacity to respond. A key part of this effort is making sure that confirmed cases respect quarantine rules, and isolate themselves to avoid spreading the disease. Rules have also been put in place in several countries where all overseas arrivals must quarantine, regardless of symptoms or status.

“According to an epidemiological investigation you were near a corona patient on 06/03/20. You must immediately enter a home isolation by 20/03/20 to protect your relatives and the public. If you have fever, cough, etc. call A-101. Learn more at the link” – An Israeli government text message. Source: @kann_news

In order to achieve this, Israel has begun to use the cellular devices to track suspected coronavirus cases. Using technology initially developed for counterterrorism purposes, it allows Israeli authorities to monitor the movements of individual citizens. If a citizen is detected as having spent 10 minutes or more within 2 meters of an infected person, they are sent a text message instructing them to self-isolate until a particular date. While a very effective method of tracing possible infection contacts, it also shows the incredible granularity of the data available to Israel’s Shin Bet intelligence agency. With this capability, it would also be trivial to track phone users for enforcement purposes, too.

South Korea has also been actively tracing citizen’s mobile phones. Public health organisations have sent out texts detailing the recent movements of infected people, revealing intimate details of their citizens private lives. In one ridiculous case, a woman who had supposedly sustained serious injuries in a recent car accident was noted to be travelling to weddings and restaurants, leading to a grilling by TV reporters after she was identified by internet users.

Iran tried a more obvious method, asking users to install an app that promised to help diagnose coronavirus symptoms. It secretly leaked user’s live location data, and once this was public knowledge, it was promptly removed from the Play Store for breaking Google’s Terms of Service. This method is quite transparent to even a moderately technical user, and stands out for this reason. Of course, this does not mean that Iran doesn’t have more serious capabilities behind the scenes for cellular tracking, but it does raise questions as to why such a blatantly obvious approach would be attempted.

A screenshot of a Chinese website used to determine whether individuals have travelled to disease hotspots.

China has dealt with COVID-19 longer than anyone, and is heavily experienced with domestic surveillance technologies. An independent source has confirmed this technology is being used for access control to buildings. At entry points, individuals scan a QR code which takes them to a phone provider’s website. Entering their details, the user is shown a record of their location in the last 14 days. If they have avoided disease hot zones, they’re granted admittance to the facility.


The ideal democracy governs with the consent of the people. While people might object to the invasion of their privacy like this in normal circumstances, they may be willing to make this tradeoff in times of peril. It’s not clear that any of the above-mentioned countries attempted to obtain their citizens’ consent.

What stops governments from using these same domestic spying powers after the health crisis ends? Oftentimes, even if it’s not used in the mainstream, intelligence organisations that operate in the dark can get away with using such tools with impunity, even in violation of the country’s own laws. We know that many have been doing so for years. If anything, it serves as a useful reminder to the public that no mobile device can be considered secure from nosy government actors.

Looking Ahead

It’s important to remember that cellphone-based tracking systems come with a major caveat. Those who don’t wish to be tracked always have the option of simply not carrying a cellular device. There are currently no nation states that enforce the carrying of a mobile phone, and so the best way to dodge such tracking is to simply opt-out of the technology altogether. In this modern era, anyone making such a decision is giving up a lot, and it’s not one that can be made lightly. For some though, it’s no option at all – where phones are used for access control to buildings, it’s hard to avoid. In China, for instance, a corona-tracking function has been tied into Alipay, the most popular pay-by-phone app, and some cities require a green light on a cellphone to use public transportation.

World governments have shown their hand, making it clear to the public that they have an immensely powerful and threatening technology at their disposal, and that they’re willing to use it without consent. While it is currently being employed in service of public health, the potential ramifications are plain to see. It may prove difficult for citizens to win back civil liberties that have been suspended in the current quarantine. Time will tell.

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New iPad Pro security feature cuts the mic when you close the case



  • Apple introduced a new security feature on the 2020 iPad Pro that disconnects the microphone at a hardware level when an MFi case compliant case is attached and closed.
  • This iPad Pro feature keeps microphone data from being collected by any software on the tablet.
  • The hardware disconnect was first introduced on MacBook models in 2018.
  • Visit BGR’s homepage for more stories.

Two weeks ago, Apple revealed a brand new iPad Pro model via a press release on its website. The iPad’s unveiling likely would have been part of Apple’s spring event, had it happened, but the coronavirus pandemic made sure to put a stop to that. All in all, the 2020 iPad Pro isn’t a massive departure from its predecessor — internally, everything has been upgraded, but the design is mostly the same, save for refreshed camera array on the back.

But it turns out that not every feature of the new iPad was disclosed in the original press release. This week, 9to5Mac spotted an update to the Apple Platform Security guide which reveals that new iPads, including the latest model, have a hardware feature that ensures the microphone disconnects when the case is closed.

Here’s the full update from Apple’s website explaining the hardware security feature in detail:

All Mac portables with the Apple T2 Security Chip feature a hardware disconnect that ensures the microphone is disabled whenever the lid is closed. On the 13-inch MacBook Pro and MacBook Air computers with the T2 chip, and on the 15-inch MacBook Pro portables from 2019 or later, this disconnect is implemented in hardware alone. The disconnect prevents any software—even with root or kernel privileges in macOS, and even the software on the T2 chip—from engaging the microphone when the lid is closed. (The camera is not disconnected in hardware, because its field of view is completely obstructed with the lid closed.)

iPad models beginning in 2020 also feature the hardware microphone disconnect. When an MFI compliant case (including those sold by Apple) is attached to the iPad and closed, the microphone is disconnected in hardware, preventing microphone audio data being made available to any software—even with root or kernel privileges in iPadOS or in case the firmware is compromised.

As 9to5Mac notes, this feature was first introduced on MacBook models with the T2 security chip in 2018. This is the first instance of Apple porting the feature to its line of tablets. It’s also incredibly timely, as many of us are using every electronic device with a camera or a microphone in our homes right now for hours on end every day to communicate with coworkers, friends, and family members. Knowing that the microphone will be automatically disconnected as soon as the case has been shut (providing you have a compliant case) should ease some anxiety.

While this feature can only be found on the 2020 iPad Pro and future iPad models, there were a few notable security improvements in the iOS 13.4 and iPadOS 13.4 releases last week, such as Data Vaults that protect data stored in third-party apps and temporary sessions for iPad users that vanish when the user logs off.

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Potential coronavirus vaccine shows hope in mouse study



A researcher at the University of Pittsburgh works on a COVID-19 vaccine candidate (Reuters)

Initial tests in mice of a potential COVID-19 vaccine delivered via a fingertip-sized patch have shown it can induce an immune response against the new coronavirus at levels that might prevent infection, U.S. scientists said on Thursday.

Researchers around the world are working to develop potential treatments or vaccines against the respiratory disease that has killed nearly 47,000 people and infected almost a million in just a few months.

A team at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in the United States said they were able to move quickly in developing a potential COVID-19 vaccine after working on other coronaviruses that cause Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS).

‘These two viruses, which are closely related to SARS-CoV-2 (the new coronavirus causing the COVID-19 pandemic), teach us that a particular protein, called a spike protein, is important for inducing immunity against the virus,’ said Andrea Gambotto, an associate professor at Pittsburgh.

‘We knew exactly where to fight this new virus.’

When tested in mice, the prototype vaccine – which the researchers have called PittCoVacc – generated what they described as ‘a surge of antibodies’ against the new coronavirus within two weeks.

The Pittsburgh researchers cautioned that because the animals have not been tracked for very long as yet, it is too early to say whether and for how long the immune response against COVID-19 lasts.

But they said that in comparable tests in mice with their MERS experimental vaccine, a sufficient level of antibodies was produced to neutralize the virus for at least a year.

Researchers have tested a prototype of the vaccine on mice (Getty Images)

Researchers have tested a prototype of the vaccine on mice (Getty Images)

So far, the antibody levels of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated animals seem to be following the same trend, they said in peer-reviewed study in the journal EBioMedicine.

The team said they hope to start testing the vaccine candidate on people in clinical trials in the next few months.

The potential vaccine uses a needle patch design, called a microneedle array, to increase its potential potency.

This array is a fingertip-sized patch of 400 tiny needles made out of sugar and the spike protein, Gambotto explained. It is designed to deliver the spike protein pieces into the skin, where the immune reaction is strongest.

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