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Samsung’s Galaxy S20 Ultra could be an iPhone killer, and it looks stunning in these images

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Earlier this week, leaked benchmark test results from a Geekbench 5.1 test run on the unreleased Samsung Galaxy S20+ revealed something disappointing, but not at all surprising. Samsung’s upcoming S20+ includes bleeding-edge specs such as a new Snapdragon 865 processor, 12GB of RAM, and the fastest available storage, but the upcoming new 2020 flagship still isn’t even as fast or as powerful as Apple’s iPhones from last year. And since Samsung’s new Galaxy S20+ can’t even outperform the iPhone 11 from 2019, it’s obviously going to be obliterated by the new iPhone 12 series phones that Apple releases in 2020.

It’s certainly not the end of the world and the phone should offer improved performance compared to the Galaxy S10 series. But considering Samsung’s ongoing rivalry with Apple and hardcore Android fans’ ongoing rivalry with Apple fans, Samsung would certainly like to reach a point where year-old iPhones don’t outperform its brand new Galaxy flagships. As it turns out, however, there’s another Galaxy S20 smartphone with even crazier specs that might finally approach or even surpass the iPhone.

Earlier on Tuesday morning, we told you about a big leak that likely revealed the specs for Samsung’s upcoming Galaxy S20 Ultra. After Apple switched things up in 2019 by ditching the “R” and replacing it with a phone simply called “iPhone 11,” Samsung is following the Cupertino company’s lead (for a change). The Galaxy S10e will be succeeded by the Galaxy S20, which will be the new entry-level Galaxy S phone. Then the Galaxy S20+ will be the souped-up version of that phone, and a third model will be made available with the craziest specs we’ve ever seen in a smartphone.

According to Tuesday morning’s leak, the Galaxy S20 Ultra will pack up to 16GB of RAM along with other spec upgrades and microSD support. The removable storage will be nice, but it’s the potential performance upgrade we’ve got our eye on. Could this finally be the Samsung phone that matches or even tops Apple’s iPhones from last year?

We won’t know for certain until we get our hands on one following Samsung’s launch event on February 11th in San Francisco. What we do know, however, is that the phone’s design leaked some time ago. Now, graphic designer Waqar Khan has whipped up new images based on everything we’ve seen so far. He shared those new Galaxy S20 Ultra images in a new YouTube video and in a post on a blog called Windows United, and the phone looks positively stunning. Check out the video embedded below, and you’ll find more renders of the phone in that blog post.



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RF Modulation: Crash Course For Hackers

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When you’re looking to add some wireless functionality to a project, there are no shortage of options. You really don’t need to know much of the technical details to make use of the more well-documented modules, especially if you just need to get something working quickly. On the other hand, maybe you’ve gotten to the point where you want to know how these things actually work, or maybe you’re curious about that cheap RF module on AliExpress. Especially in the frequency bands below 1 GHz, you might find yourself interfacing with a module at really low level, where you might be tuning modulation parameters. The following overview should give you enough of an understanding about the basics of RF modulation to select the appropriate hardware for your next project.

Three of the most common digital modulation schemes you’ll see in specifications are Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), and LoRa (Long Range). To wrap my mechanically inclined brain around some concepts, I found that thinking of RF modulation in terms of pitches produced by a musical instrument made it more intuitive.

And lots of pretty graphs don’t hurt either. Signals from two different RF dev boards were captured and turned into waterfall and FFT plots using a $20 RTL-SDR dongle. Although not needed for wireless experimentation, the RTL-SDR is an extremely handy debugging tool, even to just check if a module is actually transmitting.

Amplitude Shift Keying

As the name suggests, with Amplitude Shift Keying the amplitude is shifted between two levels, like playing a single note (frequency) on a piano loudly or softly, to represent binary data. ASK modulation’s main advantage lies in its simplicity, which allows for very cheap hardware. It is also very bandwidth-efficient since it only outputs on a narrow frequency band. However, ASK modulation is badly affected by interference, which limits its effective range. A simplified form of ASK modulation is On-Off Shift Keying (OOK), where the transmitter is simply switched on (1) and off (0). This has a power saving advantage since no power is emitted for a 0 symbol. ASK is often used in cheap RF remote controls for consumer devices and automatic garage doors. RF modules that support more complex modulation schemes often can also do ASK and OOK modulation.

ASK (Left) and OOK (RIGHT), both transmitting at the same power level. Note how much less accumulative power is output by the OOK signal

Frequency Shift Keying

In Frequency Shift Keying the transmitted signal shifts between two different frequencies to represent binary data, like two different notes from a piano. This would technically be 2-FSK modulation. Four different frequencies can also be used (4-FSK) to represent 01, 11, 10 and 00. FSK uses more bandwidth, but is less susceptible to interference than ASK, allowing for a much longer effective range up to multiple kilometres. On real hardware, the rapid frequency changes can cause the desired frequency to be “overshot”, creating interference. To solve this, a common variation on FSK is Gaussian FSK, where the shifts between frequencies are smoothed to help reduce the effective bandwidth of the signal. Bluetooth Low Energy uses GFSK modulation.

2-FSK (Left) and 2-GFSK (Right). On GFSK the intermediate frequencies are visible from the “smooth” shift.

LoRa

LoRa modulation, with the sweeping “chirps” clearly distinguishable

The current darling for long range applications is LoRa, which most Hackaday readers would have heard of many times. LoRa is a form of “chirp spread spectrum” modulation. The “chirp” signal sweeps smoothly across specific frequency range: usually 125 kHz, 250 kHz or 500 kHz wide. How long the sweep takes to complete is determined by the “spreading factor” (SF). The SF is between 7 and 12, which is equal to the number of bits encoded in each chirp. A higher spreading factor reduces the data rate, and increases power consumption, but also makes it easier for the receiver to distinguish the signal from background noise, and helps with longer-range transmissions. Data is encoded by shifting the start frequency of the sweep. When the sweep reaches the end of the top frequency, it “rolls over” and start again from the bottom frequency.

LoRa modulation allows for good receiver sensitivity and interference immunity, but it comes at the cost of bandwidth efficiency. Another disadvantage is the higher cost of hardware, partly due to the patent on LoRa modulation. All manufacturers of LoRa RF chips must pay license fees to the patent holder, Semtech.

Closing Transmission

When working with RF, it’s always a good idea to know what your local regulations are with regard to allowed frequencies and output power. You don’t want authorities knocking on your door for jamming everyone in the neighbourhood’s key fobs. If you stay within the ISM bands, usually 868/915 MHz and 2.4GHz, licensing isn’t required. However, you can always get your ham radio license, and access more of the frequency spectrum, at much higher power output to even achieve intercontinental communications.

The modulation schemes above are only some many in existence, each with advantages and disadvantages. You’ll probably end up with a few choices in your parts inventory, so don’t be afraid to play around with them for different use cases. And be sure to pull out an SDR dongle and have a look!



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The next-gen Xbox’s secret weapon against the PS5 might’ve just leaked

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Both Sony and Microsoft are going to launch new consoles this holiday season, but it’s the latter might be doing things differently in 2020. Rather than launching just one console model, as Sony is expected to do with the PlayStation 5, Microsoft will reportedly release two new Xbox versions, one that will compete directly against the PS5 and one that will be slightly cheaper and less powerful. So far, Microsoft has only announced the Xbox Series X product name, but a more affordable Xbox Series S might also be in the works, according to recent leaks.

Previous reports referred to the two next-generation Xbox models by their supposed code names, Anaconda and Lockhart, but Microsoft never really acknowledged them. Now, a brand new leak seems to suggest that the Xbox Series S might be real, as someone has been testing an AMD processor that could power the cheaper version of Microsoft’s new console.

A detailed analysis of the mysterious AMD APU was posted over on Reddit, showing the chip’s benchmark scores in 3DMark 11 and Time Spy relative to known AMD chipsets. The APU includes a 4.0GHz octa-core processor and an unknown graphics processing unit, and it’s paired with 16GB of GDDRX memory shared between RAM (12GB) and VRAM (4GB) in these benchmarks.

From what can be gleaned from public benchmark scores and a private Time Spy scores, WinFuture says the unnamed AMD APU might deliver a graphics performance that would sit between 7.0 teraflops and 7.9 teraflops, which would be significantly higher than the rumored 4 teraflops performance of the cheaper 2020 Xbox model. This is just speculation though, as Microsoft is yet to reveal the actual specs of the new Xbox consoles.

Sony is widely expected to hold its PlayStation 5 event in February, but it’s unclear when Microsoft will reveal more details about the new Xbox models. A detailed PS5 leak said a few weeks ago that the affordable Xbox will be $100 cheaper than the $499.99 PS5, which, in turn, will be $100 less expensive than the Xbox Series X. Those claims are unverified as well, but once Sony unveils the PS5, we’ll be in a better position to tell whether the leaker had accurate information on hand.



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China doesn’t need a Huawei ‘backdoor’ to launch a cyber-attack against the UK, experts warn

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The Chinese firm Huawei is set to play a role in building part of the UK’s 5G network infrastructure (Image: Getty)

China has better ways of hitting the UK with a cyber attack than trying to exploit a ‘backdoor’ in Huawei equipment, UK experts have concluded.

As the Government gave the green light for the controversial Chinese tech firm to play a limited role in the UK’s 5G network, the National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) said the risk of its involvement was ‘manageable’.

Huawei is already subject to oversight arrangements which ensure that any ’embedded malicious functionality could be detected should it exist’, the analysis said.

The US has warned allies not to allow the Chinese firm to play a part in their 5G networks, arguing that it is a security risk due to its close links to the Beijing government, something denied by Huawei.

The firm’s activities in the UK have been overseen by arrangements including the Huawei Cyber Security Evaluation Centre (HCSEC) – nicknamed the Cell.

The NCSC said: ‘Due to the UK’s mitigation strategy, which includes HCSEC as an essential component, our assessment is that the risk of trojan functionality in Huawei equipment remains manageable.

‘Placing “backdoors” in any Huawei equipment supplied into the UK is not the lowest risk, easiest to perform or most effective means for the Chinese state to perform a major cyber attack on UK telecoms networks today.’

The NCSC did raise concerns about any single supplier of equipment being allowed to play a dominant role in the network.

SIPA USA via PA Images A Huawei logo is seen on top of an office building in Bucharest, Romania on May 1, 2019. (Photo by Jaap Arriens/Sipa USA)

(Image: PA)

The guidance issued by NCSC excludes ‘high-risk vendors’ such as Huawei from ‘core’ parts of the network, and sensitive locations including nuclear sites and military bases.

They will also be limited to a minority presence of no more than 35% in the periphery of the network, known as the access network, elements which connect devices and equipment to mobile phone masts.

The NCSC stressed that it was ‘important to avoid the situation in which the UK becomes nationally dependent on a particular supplier’.

It added: ‘Without government intervention, the NCSC considers there to be a realistic likelihood that due to commercial factors, the UK would become “nationally dependent” on Huawei within three years.’

National dependence on a high-risk vendor would present a ‘significant national security risk’, the NCSC said.

NCSC technical director Dr Ian Levy said Huawei had always been treated as a high-risk vendor and the authorities have ‘worked to limit their use in the UK’.

‘We’ve never ‘trusted’ Huawei and the artefacts you can see (like the Huawei Cyber Security Evaluation Centre (HCSEC) and the oversight board reports) exist because we treat them differently to other vendors,’ he said.

‘We ask operators to use Huawei in a limited way so we can collectively manage the risk and NCSC put in place a wider mitigation strategy, of which HCSEC is the most visible part.’

Ciaran Martin, chief executive of the NCSC, said: ‘This package will ensure that the UK has a very strong, practical and technically sound framework for digital security in the years ahead.

‘The National Cyber Security Centre has issued advice to telecoms network operators to help with the industry roll-out of 5G and full-fibre networks in line with the Government’s objectives.

‘High-risk vendors have never been, and never will be, in our most sensitive networks.

‘Taken together these measures add up to a very strong framework for digital security.’



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